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What is Overactive Bladder?

Two women having coffee on the balcony

An overactive bladder (OAB) describes a series of problems connected to urgency to urinate. It should be noted that the condition doesn’t involve leakage or wetting accidents. It simply means that the person affected feels a more frequent urge to empty the bladder. The condition is also sometimes referred to as irritable bladder. 


What are the symptoms of an overactive bladder?

An overactive, irritable or sensitive bladder is caused by detrusor overactivity. This means that your bladder tries to expel urine even when it isn’t full. The most obvious symptom is high daytime frequency of urination. Medical opinion suggests that emptying the bladder should occur around 4-8 times a day. Any more than this could indicate an overactive or irritable bladder. The condition is more common among older people and women of all ages. Other symptoms include not making it to the bathroom in time to pass urine, bed-wetting and increased visits to the toilet during the night – a condition known as Nocturia, which doesn’t involve bedwetting.
 
It should be noted that urine leakage is not a symptom of an overactive bladder. If these are occurring it is likely the problem is urge incontinence.

What are the causes of an overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence?

There are many potential causes to the problem of an overactive bladder. An obstruction to the urethra can cause feelings of urgency as can urinary tract infection caused by bacteria in the bladder irritating the mucosa on the inside of the bladder. It may sound obvious, but it could be that simply drinking too much fluid is the source of the problem. Also, certain drinks such as energy drinks, coffee or other drinks containing high levels of caffeine could be causing problems. Low fluid intake can also cause feelings of urgency. Avoiding drinking to reduce feelings of urgency makes the problem worse as urine becomes too concentrated, irritates the bladder lining and results in foul-smelling urine and urge symptoms. Dehydration also increases the risk of constipation, a factor known to increases the chances of having urinary incontinence. An overactive bladder can also be caused by bladder stones.

Serious conditions that can cause an overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence

An overactive bladder and urge urinary incontinence can be the result of a more serious medical condition. Gynaecological problems such as prolapse or ovarian tumours can cause bladder irritation that leads to urgency to urinate. Women who have had previous surgery for stress incontinence can also be affected. Amongst other groups at risk are persons with diabetes. Uncontrolled diabetes with high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) may cause increased thirst and urine production. Men with problems caused by an enlarged prostate can also be affected. Finally, conditions that affect the nervous system such as Spina Bifida, Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s Disease can all be potential causes of an overactive bladder and other symptoms from the bladder.

What treatments are available?

Treating an overactive or sensitive bladder can be complicated as it is often difficult to pinpoint the exact cause of the problem. Because of this, treatment often involves targeting the symptoms that are causing the most distress. A doctor will recommend what are known as conservative measures – bladder training, changes to lifestyle, diet etc – as an initial treatment. If these prove to be ineffective, medication may be the next step. If symptoms persist or become more severe, surgical procedures are available. 
 
If you are concerned about bladder health or are experiencing an increased urgency to urinate, we suggest you first contact a healthcare professional. They will be able to offer qualified advice on the best course of treatment.

What can I do to manage the symptoms of an overactive bladder?

As well as seeking qualified medical advice, there are steps you can take to manage the symptoms of an overactive or sensitive bladder. If you’re experiencing drips or urine leakage, TENA has a full range of pads, pants, shields and other products for both men and women. Discreet and effective, TENA products remove some of the stress caused by the condition by giving you peace of mind and a fresh, dry feeling, day and night.